Mind Games. By Dr Paul Baxter
This article explains the fascinating background to Old Way/New Way® and describes how coaches can use it to improve performance in lawn bowls. The article first appeared in seven monthly parts in the Queensland Bowler from December 1998 to June 1999 and was featured in the Coaching section of the Royal Queensland Bowls Association web site,
During all my years as a psychologist specialising in learning enhancement, I've never met anyone who was not interested in how to improve their game. Every bowler, whether beginner or elite, is interested in how to lift his or her game. You are well on the road to improvement once you have some practical answers to questions like these:
- Why do skills take so long to acquire?
- Why can it take a full off-season or more of hard training and drills before an established technique difficulty gets better?
- When you change your grip or delivery, why is it that it feels strange having done it the other way for so long, you have to concentrate hard every time you do it and, when you lose concentration, you unintentionally and automatically revert to what you used to do before?
- Why is it that some team members can perform correctly during training, practice and skill drills but in the heat of competition their game comes apart?
- Why is it that when the rules change in your sport, at first you sometimes play as if you were still under the old rules?
- Why is it that bowlers need a lot of drill and practice before they can successfully adopt a new game strategy?
- Why is it that despite the fact that the coach takes great pains to teach the skill so bowlers get it right the first time, inevitably everyone ends up trying to unlearn technique faults and bad habits they have developed?
- Why is it that old habits die hard?
In the coming series of articles I want to share with you some fascinating new insights into how we learn and develop skills in lawn bowls; how we can improve our technique and correct technique difficulties when they develop; and how we can better transfer what we learn from the coach during instruction and training to actual competitive performance on the green. If you do not yet have answers to the questions at the start of this article, you soon will. If you believe you already know the answers to those questions, you will have a chance to reconsider your views in the light of new information from some fascinating research in learning and skill development and from case studies in performance improvement. Some of the topics we will examine in upcoming issues:
- How do we learn?
- Does practice make perfect?
- The importance of our pre-existing knowledge and skills
- Why old habits die hard?
- What can we learn from an error?
- How do coaches and bowlers respond to errors?
- What can we do about the effect of prior learning?
- How to work with your brain, not against it
- Implications for performance coaching and skill development.
Why old habits die hard
"The single most important factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows. Ascertain this, and teach her/him accordingly." David Ausubel.
Most bowlers are not a "blank slate" for the coach to write to. Even as beginners we already have at least some knowledge or experience of the topic or skill being taught. We have seen lawn bowling before and have formed at least some ideas or pre-conceptions from watching it on TV and from talking to others who play the game. Those of us who are more experienced bowlers come to the coaching situation already loaded with prior knowledge of the topic or skill being taught. Some of this prior knowledge we have may be correct but often, for one reason or another, some of it is incomplete or incorrect, or both. People often, "get it wrong". Even elite bowlers sooner or later lapse into performance faults that can develop into established and persistent technique difficulties.
We've all heard the expression, "Old habits die hard!" The reason old habits die hard is that the brain protects all our learned skills and knowledge, whether "right" or "wrong", "appropriate" or "inappropriate", "state of the art" or "outdated." In other words, our technique faults, imperfections or "lesser skills" are protected from change (and from correction) by the brain's knowledge protective mechanism. Because of this mechanism we become "the prisoners of habit." This is why we find change so difficult.
Another way of describing this is to say that when we are shown the wrong way and then inadvertently practice it, we can quickly develop a "learned error."
Coaches and bowlers try to get it right the first time, but for one reason or another that often does not happen and we end up trying to unlearn the technique difficulties we somehow picked up.
The brain mechanism responsible for this dilemma has a name - it is called proactive inhibition. Proactive inhibition (PI for short) has been researched for many years in psychology and the initial research findings have never been challenged.
Basically, PI is an interference with learning that occurs whenever the way you currently do things is different and conflicts with the new knowledge and skills that you are trying to learn. When what you are learning is consistent with what you already know and do, then there is no problem and the old consolidates the new. But when the new learning disagrees with or is different from what you already know and do, then your brain detects the conflict and the knowledge protection mechanism is inadvertently and automatically activated. The old, pre-existing, incorrect learning then interferes with (i.e.,, proactively inhibits) the new, correct learning, slowing down learning of the correct or better way.
In bowling, e.g., the old (incorrect) skill interferes with the learning of the new (correct) skill. The bowler's incorrect technique is protected by his or her brain and it interferes with all attempts to learn the new, "correct" technique.
This interference happens in the following way. When someone tells you that what you are doing is "wrong", however nicely and however helpfully they may say this to you, your brain activates the knowledge protection mechanism. This interferes with your ability to remember the new skill you are trying to learn. Although you may appear to be able to perform correctly during practice and while under the watchful eyes of your coach, as soon as you have to go back to the game and perform independently or when the pressure of competition starts to get at you, you will inadvertently revert to the "wrong" technique you had before. Your game starts to "come apart." To yourself and to everyone else, you appear to have forgotten what you learned and practiced so hard. Once again, old habits seem to die hard.
It is important to note that this protective mechanism is universal and involuntary - we all have it and we have no control over it. We also know that this protective mechanism is stronger in some people than in others. However, we all have it to some degree and some of us have quite a lot of it.
What this all means is that, despite your desire to improve; despite long practice sessions involving repetition or drill in the "correct" way of doing it; and despite encouragement from your coach and team mates, you will still find that whenever you try to change what you are doing, whether it be learning a new technique, a new skill (physical or mental) or a new game strategy, then you will experience the following problems:
- the "new" technique feels strange and uncomfortable having done it the other way for so long
- you have to actively concentrate hard on what you are supposed to do, every time you do it
- when you "lose concentration" or "get fatigued" or "get distracted" you revert to your old technique.
This unfortunate situation can, in fact, go on for a very long time. In many sports it is not unusual to find that, when conventional skill correction methods are employed, it takes a full off-season or longer to improve (not necessarily even eradicate; just improve slightly) an established technique fault.
Demonstration of interference from pre-existing skills
You may have already have done this demonstration. If so, all you need do is read this section to revise the main points.
Interpretation of your scores on the words in colour test.The first task is quite simple. Everyone is good at reading words and most people take around 30 seconds to finish this task. Reading words is a well established skill that requires little if any conscious effort on our part. We have practised reading for a long time and have become quite good at it. It happens almost automatically and effortlessly, without having to exert our powers of concentration.
The second task is very different. People say they have to consciously suppress the tendency to want to read the word, to revert back to their old habit (Task 1). The old habit ("green") tries to interfere with the new learning ("pink"). But today the old habit is "wrong" - "green" is wrong and "pink" is right. Times are very changeable, as we all know. You now have to quickly change your knowledge, your skills and that is very difficult.<>Old habits die hard, as we all know. The interference effect slows down our learning of the new information, the new skill. Because we all differ in how much interference we experience on this task, the time it takes can vary from 40 seconds to 150 seconds or more.
Clearly, people differ in the strength of interference from prior knowledge but everyone takes longer on this task than the first task and some people take very much longer. Most people take from 2 to 3 times longer. The important point is that we all have this problem and this is why we all dislike and resist change. It is the reason why old habits die hard.
Apart from taking longer to complete, the second task also generates emotions in people. Over many years of doing this demonstration with all kinds of people and occupations, we get comments like these, "It's really hard", "I really had to concentrate hard", "Noisy people around me made it even harder to concentrate - I tried to screen them out but there was more interference", "I got really frustrated by not being able to do what appeared to be a simple and easy task", "I had to actively stop myself from saying "green" when I knew I should be saying, "pink", "I got angry and frustrated at my inability to change quickly to the right answer".
This emotional reaction is the same reaction we experience whenever we try to change what we already know and what we can do. It is a universal response to change in human beings. It helps to explain why people resist change and why old habits die hard.
Although you are welcome to try this test on your family and friends, please resist the temptation to compare your scores with those of others. All that really matters is how your score on the second task compares with your score on the first task - the greater the difference, the more likely you are to experience interference from your prior learning and the longer it takes you to change what you know and what you can do.
In case you were wondering, performance on this demonstration seems to have nothing to do with intelligence as measured by IQ tests. The interference effect seems to be independent of other abilities although if you have a big difference between task 1 and 2 it is possible that you have a more retentive memory. It also means that you find it harder to change your ways.
Identifying learned errors is the key to improvement
The words in colour activity you did told you something about your own level of proactive inhibition (PI). Your PI level influences how much interference from your current skills base you are likely to experience whenever you try to improve your technique.
The higher your PI level; the more interference you get; the greater the effort required to change; the more frustrated you feel and the longer it takes to improve your game.
The first step in dealing with this universal problem is to take a closer look at the kind of errors you are making during the game. We have to do an, "error analysis".
There are two kinds of errors that concern us, namely Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 errors are due to careless mistakes, slips, or lapses of concentration. Beginners learning the game tend to make these kinds of random errors and they disappear as the bowler gains mastery.
Type 2 errors, however, show a pattern - they are consistent, repetitive and clearly not due to carelessness or inexperience. Sometimes called, "expert errors", Type 2 errors are learned errors, i.e., when the bowler does it wrong (s)he does it wrong in the same wrong way most times, as in the tendency to consistently bowl a short bowl or adopt the wrong stance or engage in negative self-talk.
Significantly, then, not all errors are equal and not all errors are a sign that the bowler failed to learn.
The relevance of this is that Type 1 and Type 2 errors require quite different technique correction approaches.
Type 1 errors show no obvious pattern so they indicate that learning has not yet occurred. The solution is to re-teach the skill or movement and then practise it sufficiently to learn it. Skill drills are valuable here because they provide interesting and essential practice in doing it the "right" way.
Type 2 errors do show a pattern and this indicates that the bowler has learned something - (s)he has practised a lesser skill and learned how to do it "wrong". We can safely say that the bowler has "learned" the error because consistency in performance indicates that learning has taken place.
Because they are learned and habitual, Type 2 errors first have to be unlearned before the bowler can learn a new and better technique.
Conventional coaching wisdom says that errors are a sign that the bowler has not yet learned good technique. The usual remedy is to re-teach and provide practice in drills. The coach in effect says to the bowler, "That's wrong. Don't do it that way. Do it this way. Now go and practice it." While this may be good coaching practice with Type 1 errors, it is clearly unsuitable for type 2 errors.
Getting a bowler to practice the "right" technique when (s)he has already learned an inferior or incorrect technique to habit strength and has a "technique problem", will not work. Research tells us that it can take up to 2,000 repetitions (practices) of the correct technique before a pre-existing technique fault is eradicated! That amounts to months or even years of training, frustration, expense and lost opportunities.
As well, transfer of learning to performance settings outside the training setting is usually poor because whenever the coach is not directly attending to the bowler the cues to correct performance are lost and the bowler typically reverts to his or her old, wrong way.
These problems are caused by PI and the associated interference with new learning caused by pre-existing learning. Telling the bowler (s)he is wrong will activate his or her PI, cause the technique fault to interfere with learning of the correct technique and will greatly slow down any improvement.
Type 2 consistent, learned errors, indicate that we are dealing with an unlearning situation rather than a straightforward re-teaching and practice situation. Incorrect prior knowledge and skills stand in the way of improvement attempts and these cannot simply be ignored or glossed over; they must first be eradicated, i.e., unlearned.
Unlearning old habits and skills, then, is a daunting process. Let's look at a new way of dealing with this age-old problem.
Skill correction and improvement of learned errors
We know that skill development and correction comes only slowly. This is primarily because of the knowledge protection mechanism in our brain that preserves, indeed fortifies, all our prior learning and existing skill level against all change attempts.
We also know that this protective mechanism or mental inertia is universal and involuntary - we all have it to a greater or lesser extent and we have no control over it even though we may be highly motivated to change and to improve our game.
Conventional coaching and skill correction approaches are at a disadvantage because these inadvertently arouse our brain's defence mechanism.
The generally recommended procedure for correction of technique faults followed by almost all coaches and self- correcting individuals is to:
- Point out what you are doing wrong and explain why it happens
- Explain and demonstrate what you should be doing instead
- Get you to copy this new action and give you feedback
- Ask you to practise the new way.
The sad truth is that this typical correction method, no matter how well-intentioned and helpfully it is applied, will have the following effect:
- Generate an interference in your brain that will make you forget the new way within minutes or hours
- You find that you only "remember" what to do while under the watchful eyes of your coach who helpfully reminds you whenever you stray from the correct technique
- The new way feels strange, having done it the other way for so long
- You also have to concentrate hard each time on exactly what to do
- As soon as you are left to your own devices and concentration lapses or when you find yourself in the stress of competitive match play you will revert to your old way
- This happens over and over.
The upshot of all this is that it takes you much longer to improve than is really necessary and you suffer a lot of frustration along the way.What can we do about this awful dilemma?
The first thing that the bowler and coach should realise is that all this is entirely normal. In fact, we could say that, given the entrenched way we try to correct technique and change people, our brain is actually "designed to forget".
Once we understand that the reason that skills improve so slowly and old habits die hard is concerned with our brain and the way we naturally learn as human beings and that many of our learning problems are a side effect of the way we go about trying to change our knowledge and skills, then both bowler and coach are much less likely to get frustrated.
Instead of trying to find somewhere to place the "blame", we have now identified a "cause" and we can get on with finding and applying a solution.
Instead of attributing the slow, unsatisfactory progress to "lack of motivation", "no talent" or "poor coaching", we can dismiss all these causes. This takes much of the heat out of the situation and lets us take a much more constructive view of things.
We can now begin to work with the brain rather than against it. We can actually start to take personal control of the change process. This is real empowerment.
The first step is to do an error analysis. If we find the bowler's skills and technique show no consistent pattern and that the errors are fairly random, then we can go ahead and simply "re-teach" the skill sequence, as you would normally do.
However, if we find that the error does show a pattern or consistency, i.e., it is a "learned, ingrained, resistant error", then we know we are dealing with an "unlearning" task and not a "re-teaching" task and we will have to adopt a different approach to our coaching.
It is important to realise that most learning problems and the general slow rate of improvement that we put up with and that we have over time come to accept as "normal" is, in fact, abnormal because it is a side-effect of the inefficient ways we go about changing what people do. There must be a better way!
Fortunately, there are special ways of dealing with learned errors or habit errors but almost all of these ways:
- require specialist knowledge
- are difficult to learn
- require close monitoring by the coach •rely on external rewards
- are resource intensive.
Even if they do not suffer from these problems, they are usually slow to work.
A method has been developed by an Australian cognitive psychologist that:
- enables any coach or bowler to achieve much faster change in knowledge and skills
- side steps the interference effect of prior learning that plagues other coaching methods
- teaches the bowler to self-detect and self- correct errors
- does not rely on rewards or punishments as motivators
- requires no special equipment or setting up
- requires only minimal monitoring and supervision.
By following this method, coaches and bowlers can accelerate learning and avoid much of the frustration and expense that normally accompanies more conventional approaches to skill development and correction.
Old Way/New Way®, as the method is called, is used by sports psychologists and coaches at the South Australian Sports Institute, the Research Institute for Olympic Sports in Finland and elsewhere, to develop and correct skills of novice and elite athletes and players in many amateur and professional sports including cricket, soccer, rugby, tennis, football, hockey, basketball, bowling, kayaking, golf and others.
Old Way/New Way®: an innovative way of facilitating change
In this series of articles on skill development and correction we are now at a point where we understand how we learn and how we develop skills in bowls.
We also learned how poor technique that is consistently observable in a bowler's game and goes uncorrected can quickly develop into a "learned error".
Since many technique problems tend to go uncorrected because the coach can't keep his or her eye on all bowlers all the time, the likelihood that many bowlers will develop learned errors at one time or another is, in fact, quite high.
We saw how these faults and imperfections are protected from change by the brain's inbuilt maintenance mechanism.
We discovered that widely used conventional methods of skill development and correction inadvertently activate this knowledge protection mechanism, greatly slowing down improvement and increasing the levels of frustration of both bowlers and coaches.
Finally, we learned that these problems persist, despite bowlers and coaches being highly motivated to fix the problem, because the overwhelming forces of proactive inhibition, accelerated forgetting and the reversion to old ways are universal and outside of our control.
Clearly, a different approach is required which works with the brain, rather than against it. Such a learning method is called Old Way/New Way®.
We can illustrate how this method works by showing how it can be applied to a fairly common technique problem in bowls.
First, a word of caution. As with any coaching procedure, when an experienced practitioner brings sophisticated coaching skills to bear on a familiar problem, it may look relatively simple and effortless to an untrained observer.
However, as with all highly skilled activities, there is much that goes on beneath the surface that is not apparent to an untrained eye. In other words, there are many traps for young bowlers.
Although the actual steps employed in Old Way/New Way® may appear to be fairly simple and user friendly, effective use of the method requires learning the "why" as well as the "how" of this method.
This specialised instructional protocol is best learned in coaching skills courses conducted by accredited Old Way/New Way® trainers.
A common fault among bowlers is the bowling arm swinging across the body during delivery. What follows is the recommended technique correction procedure for this problem.
Keep in mind that since space does not allow a full and complete description of each and every step in the process, this is a highly abbreviated and condensed version of what really goes on.
If this way of bowling is inconsistent for the particular bowler, then conventional skill correction procedures can be used. That is, point out the error; explain why it is wrong; show the bowler the recommended position for the arm by demonstrating that; get the bowler to copy this action; provide feedback, correction and reinforcement; and then ask them to practice the new, correct way.
However, if observation over a period of time, and the bowler's own opinion, confirm that holding the bowl (and the arm) directly out in front of the body, instead of in front of and out to the side, is a consistent fault for that bowler, you should use Old Way/New Way®, as follows:
- Point out the error
- Explain why it is wrong
- Ask the bowler to show how he or she normally holds the ball – i.e., in front of the body (the incorrect way)
- Improve the bowler's awareness of what he or she normally does that is wrong. This step is crucial for the rest of the procedure to work and you should devote adequate time to this. Familiarity with specific techniques is a definite advantage at this stage
- Show the bowler the correct position for holding the ball
- Show and explain the differences between their way and the correct way
- Systematically and repeatedly rehearse these differences, having the bowler do it their way first, then do it in the correct way, comparing these two and then describing the difference
- When the bowler seems to have the two ways sorted out in his or her mind, then and only then proceed with systematic practice of the correct way
- Instruct the bowler in the correct procedure for follow-up and self-correction for this specific skill problem.
From time to time, coaches who have seen this method in action have been surprised, even amazed, by the results.
However, the more observant of these have pointed out that, before a coach or bowler could incorporate and integrate this worthwhile method as part of the coaching "tools of trade", he or she would need to change his or her own coaching methods. As we all know, old (coaching) habits die hard!
Old Way/New Way® courses for coaches and bowlers are designed to overcome this coaching problem.
I'm often asked if Old Way/New Way® is mainly useful for practical skills. In the next section we'll see how it can be used to help bowlers learn those all-important mental skills as well.
Coaching mental skills with Old Way/New Way®<>Let's look at how we can use Old Way/New Way® to learn mental skills. In previous issues of this magazine David O'Sign, sports psychologist at the Western Australian Institute of Sport, described some useful mental skills and how these can be used to improve your game.
As useful as these skills are, it usually takes quite a bit of prolonged, effortful practice to acquire mental skills, especially if you are not used to playing that way. In other words, before you can learn new mental skills you have to change your own, established, habitual ways of playing the "mental" part of the game.
Since old habits die hard we now know that simply "practising over and over" a mental (or physical) skill will not help you learn it quickly. In fact, it can take you up to 2,000 repetitions (practices) of the new way before it becomes an established part of your game.
Instead of relying on practice, we need to use Old Way/New Way® to quickly change our old ways into new and better ways.
An example will illustrate how Old Way/New Way® can be used to help a bowler overcome a problem with "anger".
This example is taken from someone I worked with recently in another sport but I know you will have no trouble identifying with the problem. The problem I describe and the solution we used applies equally to all sports.
Eddie is a young golfer with excellent potential. After playing only two years he has a handicap of five. At the age of 15 he has been singled out for special advanced coaching and is expected to, "make it big", one day not too far away.
However, this rising star has a serious problem. Whenever he makes a bad mistake in competitive play he "loses it" in a grand way. His language is formidable and while he does not actually throw clubs, he pretty well does everything else.
His anger, of course, is directed at himself. His frustration at not being able to perform as he feels he should gets the better of him and explodes into uncontrollable outbursts.
The down side of all this is that Eddie's concentration is affected by his angry outbursts. After such an explosion the rest of his game is in tatters and he is unable to recover.
Eddie has come to believe that he cannot change himself and that the situation is completely beyond his control. His coach and his father who is also his best supporter have tried everything and told him not to be so hard on himself, all without success.
His coach and his father say that he will eventually "grow out of it" but it has got to the stage where it is seriously affecting his game and is retarding his progress. Clearly, Eddie knows what he is doing wrong (getting angry); he knows what he should be doing instead (not getting angry and concentrating on his game); but he cannot make the change.
Having failed to control his anger early on and thereby allowing it to happen over and over, he inadvertently "practiced" getting upset and angry. Whatever you practice you will learn, so it became a habit pattern.
Eddie is now the prisoner of habit. It will take him quite some time, frustration and expense before he gets over this problem.
Eddie's father called me in to help with this problem and we spent two hours finding out why Eddie gets so angry and then helping him quickly learn some mental skills that would give him more control.
Psychology helps explain how your beliefs about your abilities lead to certain expectations about your performance and, when these are frustrated, how your emotions are aroused to an extent that your concentration suffers and your game falls apart.
Eddie's predicament is a good example of how the "mental side of the game", namely personal beliefs, expectations and emotions all interact to influence physical performance in sport.<
During the session it became clear that Eddie believes in his golfing ability. Deep down, he knows he is good; he believes that one day he will be a great golfer. These are all quite realistic beliefs, based on his phenomenal progress to date and the constant reminders from his coach and his father that he will surely make it to the top. They believe in him and it shows, and this reinforces his own beliefs.
These beliefs lead Eddie to have certain expectations about his level of performance. For example, he expects that he should not make serious mistakes. To Eddie, making mistakes means "failure". Mistakes threaten his fast track to success. Mistakes are totally inconsistent with his abilities and general performance. Mistakes are "bad".
Whenever Eddie plays a bad stroke in an important match he sets off this string of negative self talk that triggers his emotions and produces his uncontrolled angry outbursts. His anger then gets the better of him, makes him lose concentration and then his game falls apart.
The fact that his self expectations are totally unrealistic is the crux of Eddie's problem. Despite the best advice and assistance, he is unable to shake these ingrained misconceptions.
Having identified the problem, we spent the second hour changing Eddie's deep-seated ideas about his "mistakes".
Eddie's (incorrect) "own ways" were identified as:
- "I should not be making a mistake"
- "Mistakes are bad"
- "If I make a mistake I'll lose this game"
- "I can't recover from a mistake"
These beliefs and expectations were then labeled, "old ways" of thinking about mistakes.
We then offered Eddie some "new ways" of thinking about mistakes and how to handle them:
- "mistakes happen; it's no big deal"
- "I'm supposed to make mistakes - it's part of the learning process and I'm still learning"
- "If I make a mistake I'll lose this game"
- "concentrate on the next thing to do, not on what I just did"
- "I can recover from a mistake - I now know what to do"
We then developed Eddie's awareness of how he usually responds to a mistake (his old way) by repeatedly having him deliberately misshit from the tee and helping him focus on how this feels emotionally.
Using Old Way/New Way®, we then exchanged Eddie's old ways for new ways, carefully going through the steps described in last month's article.
His negative self talk was changed to positive self talk and his unrealistic beliefs and expectations changed to a much more realistic self assessment.
We also taught Eddie some simple, useful techniques for releasing himself from a state of high emotional arousal (anger). He could use this technique whenever he found himself getting too upset about a mistake.
Finally, we taught Eddie how to self-correct on those odd (up to 20% of occasions) when he finds himself doing an "old Way", i.e., getting angry.
Two weeks and several competitions later, Eddie's father reported that his son was doing quite well. There had definitely been an improvement. After one correction session, he had achieved the 80% imrovement we predicted.
It took just one more session lasting an hour and the problem was completely fixed. The important things to note from this example are:
- We did not change Eddie - he changed himself. He was empowered by Old Way/New Way® to change himself
- This change occurred very quickly - much faster than by conventional coaching methods which do little more than tell the person to "practice, practice, practice" the new way
- After just one short session, Eddie had improved by 80%. After two sessions he had improved 100%
- The change process involved a team effort - to diagnose the problem, to come up with acceptable solutions and to enable the changes to occur
- The change methodology did not require incentives (rewards or punishments) and was uncomplicated and easy to administer
- Eddie has now acquired a learning method he can use any time from now on to improve his technique as well as his mental skills
- Eddie is a much happier bowler now. He is more confident, much less easily thrown off his game and very much in control.
Eddie is back on track and his handicap has gone down to 3. His future looks rosy.
Old Way/New Way® has opened up a whole new world of performance enhancement for everyone.
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